SUMMARY: This article focuses on the physical properties of plants that have evolved to help them select the appropriate pollinators and discourage non-pollinators (nectar stealers). The first feature the article addresses is the shape of the cells. Flower petals often have cone-shaped cells to help scatter more light. This gives the flower a more intense and glittery appearance. Flowers with a “color” mutation actually produce the same pigment, but their cells are flat instead of cone-shaped. Thus, they look duller and more washed out. Cone-shaped cells also help pollinators grip better; however, parts of the flower where the plant wants to discourage nectar stealers are lined with flat cells, decreasing grip ability. Finally electrostatic forces build up on flying pollinators (like bees and hummingbirds) and attract pollen. The stigma of the receiving plant is also has an electrostatic charge to better attract pollen from the bodies of incoming pollinators.
LESSON COMMENTS: There are a lot of physics topics that can be covered: light, reflection, refraction, electrostatic forces, and friction. I tried to talk about the most interesting points in the summary but there is a lot more (and cool figures and graphs) in the paper. There’s even a section talking about the mechanics of a plant dumping pollen specifically on the back of insects. Physics teachers, you might be able to use this article to inspire research projects or science experiments!
Moyroud, E., & Glover, B. J. (2016). The physics of pollinator attraction. New Phytologist,216(2), 350-354. doi:10.1111/nph.14312