Inheritance & Variation of Traits, Inheritance 2: Genes and Growth (MS), Inheritance 2: Role of DNA (HS), Inheritance 5: DNA Technology (MS), Life Science, Natural Selection & Evolution, NSE 1: Evolution Evidence (HS), NSE 2: Evolution Factors (HS), NSE 2: Taxonomy (MS), NSE 3: Embryology (MS), S&F 1: Cells (MS), S&F 1: DNA to Proteins (HS), Structure and Function

Cas4-like Protein in Giant Viruses

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2018.04.001 SUMMARY: Mimiviruses are giant viruses that co-evolved with eukaryotic hosts and virophages. Virophages are tiny viruses that hijack the viral factories giant viruses set up inside the host. Just as the eukaryotic host and virophages have evolved a sort of symbiotic relationship to defend against giant virus attacks, giant viruses have also evolved a… Continue reading Cas4-like Protein in Giant Viruses

Inheritance & Variation of Traits, Inheritance 1: Behavior and Reproduction (MS), Inheritance 2: Genes and Growth (MS), Inheritance 2: Role of DNA (HS), Inheritance 4: Population Genetics (HS), Inheritance 5: DNA Technology (MS), Interdependent Relationships in Ecosystems, IR 1: Ecosystem Interactions (MS), IR 3: Ecosystem Stability (HS), Life Science, Natural Selection & Evolution, NSE 1: Evolution Evidence (HS), NSE 2: Evolution Factors (HS), NSE 4: Adaption (HS), NSE 4: Fitness (MS), NSE 5: Natural Selection (MS), NSE 5: Population Flux (HS), S&F 1: Cells (MS), S&F 1: DNA to Proteins (HS), S&F 2: Cell Function (MS), Structure and Function

Amoebae, Giant Viruses, and Virophages

https://doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2017.00527 SUMMARY: In 2003, scientists discovered that giant viruses infected amoebas. These giant viruses are so big that they were mistaken for bacteria for the longest time. It wasn’t until scientists realized they contained no ribosomal DNA that these organisms were reclassified as viruses. From there, even more giant viruses were discovered. Some of the… Continue reading Amoebae, Giant Viruses, and Virophages

Inheritance & Variation of Traits, Inheritance 2: Role of DNA (HS), Life Science, Non-NGSS Articles, S&F 1: Cells (MS), S&F 1: DNA to Proteins (HS), S&F 2: Cell Function (MS), S&F 3: Body Systems (MS), S&F 4: Stimuli Response (MS), Structure and Function

mRNA vaccines – a new era in vaccinology

https://www.nature.com/articles/nrd.2017.243 SUMMARY: Traditional ways of making vaccines include using antigens and weakened or dead pathogens. While these methods have worked for us in the past, their application is limited. They don’t work against cancers and tumors and they can be expensive to produce. Using mRNA vaccines is a new and versatile way to create vaccines.… Continue reading mRNA vaccines – a new era in vaccinology

Chemical Reactions, CR 1: Predicting Reactions (HS), Life Science, Natural Selection & Evolution, Non-NGSS Articles, NSE 4: Adaption (HS), S&F 1: DNA to Proteins (HS), S&P 1: Periodic Table Patterns (HS), S&P 4: Molecule Traits (HS), Structure & Properties of Matter, Structure and Function

The making of natural iron sulfide nanoparticles in a hot vent snail

https://www.pnas.org/content/116/41/20376 SUMMARY: The scaly-foot snail also known as Chrysomallon squamiferum is unique in that it makes iron sulfide nanoparticles. Chemically, most creatures who are only able to make minerals (biomineralization) using oxygen. The scaly-foot snail is able to do this in the absence of oxygen, a method that scientists are keen on understanding as it… Continue reading The making of natural iron sulfide nanoparticles in a hot vent snail

Life Science, S&F 1: Cells (MS), S&F 2: Body Systems (HS), S&F 2: Cell Function (MS), S&F 3: Body Systems (MS), Structure and Function

Immune responses in COVID-19

Immune responses in COVID-19 and potential vaccines: Lessons learned from SARS and MERS epidemic SUMMARY: This article review looks at what is already known about SARS and MERS and uses the data and clinical studies to discuss potential vaccines and treatments for the new coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2. Compared to SARS-CoV and MERS, SARS-CoV-2 has a much… Continue reading Immune responses in COVID-19

E 2: Energy & Motion (HS), E 2: Potential Energy (MS), E 5: Kinetic Energy Transfer (MS), Energy, F&I 2: Newton's 3rd Law (HS), F&I 3: Shock Absorbers (HS), Forces & Interactions

Contributions of Limb Joints to Energy Absorption during Landing in Cats

Contributions of Limb Joints to Energy Absorption during Landing in Cats SUMMARY: How is it that cats are able to jump down from high places and not hurt themselves? Researchers in this study observed 5 cats, jumping from various heights, for clues as to what sorts of forces and shock absorbers were at work. The… Continue reading Contributions of Limb Joints to Energy Absorption during Landing in Cats