Earth Science, Earth's System, ES 1: Geochemical Cycles (HS), ES 4: Carbon Cycling (HS), HE 3: Stratigraphic Records (MS), History of Earth, Inheritance & Variation of Traits, Inheritance 1: Mitosis (HS), Inheritance 4: Population Genetics (HS), Interdependent Relationships in Ecosystems, IR 1: Ecosystem Interactions (MS), Life Science, M&E 1: Photosynthesis (HS), M&E 1: Photosynthesis (MS), M&E 4: Biogeochemical Cycles (MS), Matter & Energy in Organisms/Ecosystems, Natural Selection & Evolution, NSE 1: Fossil Records (MS), NSE 5: Population Flux (HS)

The evolution of diatoms and their biogeochemical functions

The evolution of diatoms and their biogeochemical functions SUMMARY: This article talks about the evolution, cell structure, and ecological role of diatoms. The first section is an introduction to what diatoms are. The second section talks about the evolution of photosynthesis (from cyanobacteria to eukaryotes with chloroplast). The third section explains the significance of the… Continue reading The evolution of diatoms and their biogeochemical functions

Earth Science, Earth's System, ES 1: Materials/Energy Flow (MS), ES 3: Earth's Resources (MS), HE 1: Plate Tectonics (HS), HE 2: Early Earth (HS), HE 2: Geoscience (MS), HE 3: Stratigraphic Records (MS), History of Earth

Coal Formation Not Correlated with Fungal Evolution

Delayed fungal evolution did not cause the Paleozoic peak in coal production SUMMARY: This article provides evidence to refute the theory that most of our coal was formed during a period of time (Carboniferous-Permian age, about 299 million years ago) when fungus had not evolved enzymes to digest lignin. Plant material was thought to have… Continue reading Coal Formation Not Correlated with Fungal Evolution

Earth Science, HE 1: Earth's History (MS), HE 2: Early Earth (HS), History of Earth

Beaming Naphthalene Part 2

Amino Acids produced from the ultraviolet/extreme-ultraviolet irradiation of naphthalene in a H2O+NH3 ice mixture SUMMARY: This experiment starts quite similarly to “Beaming Naphthalene 1”, but after exposure to UV light, researchers scraped off the residue (there was no scraping of the residue in “Beaming Naphthalene 1”), hydrolysis performed (reaction with water) and products identified with… Continue reading Beaming Naphthalene Part 2

Earth Science, Earth's System, ES 1: Materials/Energy Flow (MS), ES 4: Carbon Cycling (HS), ES 5: Life on Earth (HS), HE 1: Earth's History (MS), HE 2: Early Earth (HS), History of Earth

Beaming Naphthalene Part 1

Infrared Study of UV/EUV Irradiation of Naphthalene in H2O+NH3 Ice SUMMARY: This study beamed naphthalene in a mixture of water and ammonia ice with different energy levels of UV light. Results showed that naphthalene breaks down and the pieces react into various small carbon-based compounds. Since conditions for this experiment try to replicate those found… Continue reading Beaming Naphthalene Part 1

Chemical Reactions, CR 3: Evidence of Reactions (HS), CR 4: Driving Reactions (HS), Earth Science, HE 1: Earth's History (MS), HE 2: Early Earth (HS), History of Earth, Non-NGSS Articles, Physical Science, S&P 4: Molecule Traits (HS), Structure & Properties of Matter

Beaming Purines

The Formation of Nucleobases from the Ultraviolet Photoirradiation of Purine in Simple Astrophysical Ice Analogues SUMMARY: Purines were combined with water and ammonia and beamed with UV photons similar to the pyrimidines in “Beaming Pyrimidines Part 1”. Researchers found many purine compounds in the products including adenine and guanine (at different concentration levels). The discussion… Continue reading Beaming Purines

Chemical Reactions, CR 4: Driving Reactions (HS), HE 1: Earth's History (MS), HE 2: Early Earth (HS), History of Earth, Physical Science, S&P 4: Molecule Traits (HS), Structure & Properties of Matter

Beaming Pyrimidines Part 5

Mechanisms for the formation of thymine under astrophysical conditions and implications for the origin of life SUMMARY: This article talks about different ways thymine can form under the conditions given in Part 4 of the Beaming Pyrimidines series. By adding hydroxyl and methyl groups to pyrimidine and beaming the mixture, thymine can form. The role… Continue reading Beaming Pyrimidines Part 5