Earth Science, Earth's System, ES 1: Geochemical Cycles (HS), ES 2: Thermal Convection Evidence (HS), ES 4: Carbon Cycling (HS), HE 1: Plate Tectonics (HS), HE 2: Geoscience (MS), HE 3: Mantle Convection (HS), History of Earth, W&C 3: Global Warming Causes (MS), Weather and Climate

CO2 emissions from subaerial volcanoes

The emissions of CO2 and other volatiles from the world's subaerial volcanoes SUMMARY: Volcanoes play an important role in recycling carbon dioxide. This study takes a closer look at the amount emitted into the atmosphere by volcanoes that aren't underwater. Out of 900 volcanoes, only 500 have detectable degassing activity (i.e. they are emitting gases).… Continue reading CO2 emissions from subaerial volcanoes

Earth Science, Earth's System, ES 1: Geochemical Cycles (HS), ES 4: Carbon Cycling (HS), HE 3: Stratigraphic Records (MS), History of Earth, Inheritance & Variation of Traits, Inheritance 1: Mitosis (HS), Inheritance 4: Population Genetics (HS), Interdependent Relationships in Ecosystems, IR 1: Ecosystem Interactions (MS), Life Science, M&E 1: Photosynthesis (HS), M&E 1: Photosynthesis (MS), M&E 4: Biogeochemical Cycles (MS), Matter & Energy in Organisms/Ecosystems, Natural Selection & Evolution, NSE 1: Fossil Records (MS), NSE 5: Population Flux (HS)

The evolution of diatoms and their biogeochemical functions

The evolution of diatoms and their biogeochemical functions SUMMARY: This article talks about the evolution, cell structure, and ecological role of diatoms. The first section is an introduction to what diatoms are. The second section talks about the evolution of photosynthesis (from cyanobacteria to eukaryotes with chloroplast). The third section explains the significance of the… Continue reading The evolution of diatoms and their biogeochemical functions

Earth Science, Earth's System, ES 1: Materials/Energy Flow (MS), ES 3: Earth's Resources (MS), HE 1: Plate Tectonics (HS), HE 2: Early Earth (HS), HE 2: Geoscience (MS), HE 3: Stratigraphic Records (MS), History of Earth

Coal Formation Not Correlated with Fungal Evolution

Delayed fungal evolution did not cause the Paleozoic peak in coal production SUMMARY: This article provides evidence to refute the theory that most of our coal was formed during a period of time (Carboniferous-Permian age, about 299 million years ago) when fungus had not evolved enzymes to digest lignin. Plant material was thought to have… Continue reading Coal Formation Not Correlated with Fungal Evolution

Earth Science, HE 1: Earth's History (MS), HE 2: Early Earth (HS), History of Earth

Beaming Naphthalene Part 2

Amino Acids produced from the ultraviolet/extreme-ultraviolet irradiation of naphthalene in a H2O+NH3 ice mixture SUMMARY: This experiment starts quite similarly to “Beaming Naphthalene 1”, but after exposure to UV light, researchers scraped off the residue (there was no scraping of the residue in “Beaming Naphthalene 1”), hydrolysis performed (reaction with water) and products identified with… Continue reading Beaming Naphthalene Part 2

Earth Science, Earth's System, ES 1: Materials/Energy Flow (MS), ES 4: Carbon Cycling (HS), ES 5: Life on Earth (HS), HE 1: Earth's History (MS), HE 2: Early Earth (HS), History of Earth

Beaming Naphthalene Part 1

Infrared Study of UV/EUV Irradiation of Naphthalene in H2O+NH3 Ice SUMMARY: This study beamed naphthalene in a mixture of water and ammonia ice with different energy levels of UV light. Results showed that naphthalene breaks down and the pieces react into various small carbon-based compounds. Since conditions of this experiment try to replicate those found… Continue reading Beaming Naphthalene Part 1

Chemical Reactions, CR 3: Evidence of Reactions (HS), CR 4: Driving Reactions (HS), Earth Science, HE 1: Earth's History (MS), HE 2: Early Earth (HS), History of Earth, Non-NGSS Articles, Physical Science, S&P 4: Molecule Traits (HS), Structure & Properties of Matter

Beaming Purines

The Formation of Nucleobases from the Ultraviolet Photoirradiation of Purine in Simple Astrophysical Ice Analogues SUMMARY: Purines were combined with water and ammonia and beamed with UV photons similar to the pyrimidines in “Beaming Pyrimidines Part 1”. Researchers found many purine compounds in the products including adenine and guanine (at different concentration levels). The discussion… Continue reading Beaming Purines