The Endocannabinoid System of Animals SUMMARY: This article talks about the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in animals. The first and second section talks about the three parts of the ECS: receptors (CBR1 and CBR2), ligands (endocannabinoids), and the ligand degrading enzymes. The receptors are G-protein coupled receptors, the ligands bind directly to these receptors, and the… Continue reading The Endocannabinoid System of Animals
Branched-chain amino acids and muscle protein synthesis in humans: myth or reality? SUMMARY: This study is an article review of the studies on whether or not consuming BCAAs (branched chain amino acids) alone was enough to promote muscle growth. Muscle protein is constantly being synthesized and broken down (anabolism, catabolism). Amino acids in blood plasma… Continue reading BCAAs and muscle protein synthesis in humans: myth or reality?
Long-term impacts of antibiotic exposure on the human intestinal microbiota SUMMARY: This review looked at how long the impact of taking antibiotics will last in the host. If one is looking at the microbiota as a whole, the effects seem to be short term (a few months); however, if one looks at the population of… Continue reading Long-term Impacts of Antibiotic Exposure on the Human Intestinal Microbiota
Bacterial Multidrug Efflux Pumps: Much More Than Antibiotic Resistance Determinants SUMMARY: Efflux pumps are found in all organisms; they play an important role in helping the cells pump out toxins, heavy metals, and in the case of antibiotic resistant bacteria, antibiotics! This article talks about how efflux pumps work, other ways that they are used… Continue reading All About Efflux Pumps
Climate-driven shifts in sediment chemistry enhance methane production in northern lakes SUMMARY: Different types of plant material decay and produce different amounts of methane. Methane is a more potent greenhouse gas compared to CO2 and decomposes into CO2 in the atmosphere. This study compared methane production of various types of plants. Plant material was collected… Continue reading Taking Methane Production Into Account
Acetaldehyde production and metabolism by human indigenous and probiotic Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains. (NOT OPEN ACCESS) SUMMARY: In order to turn ethanol into acetaldehyde, the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase requires both a zinc atom and NAD+. This study looks at the levels of NAD+ in Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria after incubating them in ethanol and acetaldehyde, in… Continue reading Metabolizing Acetaldehyde