Interdependent Relationships in Ecosystems, IR 1: Ecosystem Interactions (MS), IR 3: Ecosystem Stability (HS), IR 5: Survival (HS), Life Science, M&E 2: Anabolism/Catabolism (HS), M&E 2: Metabolism (MS), M&E 3: Cellular Respiration (HS), M&E 3: Food Webs (MS), M&E 4: Aerobic/Anaerobic Resp. (HS), M&E 4: Biogeochemical Cycles (MS), M&E 5: Matter/Energy Cycles (HS), M&E 6: Biogeochemical Cycles (HS), Matter & Energy in Organisms/Ecosystems, S&F 1: Cells (MS), S&F 1: DNA to Proteins (HS), S&F 4: Stimuli Response (MS), Structure and Function

Different Enzymes to Digest Different Plant Substrates

The fungal cultivar of leaf-cutter ants produces specific enzymes in response to different plant substrates SUMMARY: Leaf-cutter ants and a fungus called Leucoagaricus gongylophorus have a symbiotic relationship. The ants harvest plant material for the fungus to “eat” and then the ants feed off of the gongylidia. These swollen parts of the hyphae are no… Continue reading Different Enzymes to Digest Different Plant Substrates

Life Science, M&E 2: Anabolism/Catabolism (HS), M&E 2: Metabolism (MS), M&E 3: Cellular Respiration (HS), M&E 4: Aerobic/Anaerobic Resp. (HS), Matter & Energy in Organisms/Ecosystems, Natural Selection & Evolution, NSE 2: Evolution Factors (HS), NSE 2: Taxonomy (MS), NSE 4: Adaption (HS), S&F 1: Cells (MS), S&F 1: DNA to Proteins (HS), S&F 2: Cell Function (MS), S&F 4: Stimuli Response (MS), Structure and Function

The architecture of cell differentiation in choanoflagellates and sponge choanocytes

The architecture of cell differentiation in choanoflagellates and sponge choanocytes SUMMARY: The closest relative to multicellular animals are single-celled organisms called choanoflagellates. These protists look like collar cells. These are cells that have a microvillar ring (the collar) around a flagellum. An example of these cells in animals are sensory epidermal cells. To get a… Continue reading The architecture of cell differentiation in choanoflagellates and sponge choanocytes

Life Science, M&E 3: Cellular Respiration (HS), Non-NGSS Articles, S&F 1: Cells (MS), S&F 2: Cell Function (MS), Structure and Function

Mitochondrial respiration during sepsis

Variability of mitochondrial respiration in relation to sepsis-induced multiple organ dysfunction SUMMARY: This is an article review on how oxygen is used by the mitochondrion during sepsis. The role of mitochondria play during sepsis is still inconsistent, despite the various studies that have been done. There are three hypotheses for mitochondrial dysfunction. 1. Mitochondria are… Continue reading Mitochondrial respiration during sepsis

Life Science, M&E 2: Anabolism/Catabolism (HS), M&E 2: Metabolism (MS), M&E 3: Cellular Respiration (HS), M&E 4: Aerobic/Anaerobic Resp. (HS), Matter & Energy in Organisms/Ecosystems

BCAAs and muscle protein synthesis in humans: myth or reality?

Branched-chain amino acids and muscle protein synthesis in humans: myth or reality? SUMMARY: This study is an article review on whether or not consuming BCAAs (branched chain amino acids) alone was enough to promote muscle growth. Muscle protein is constantly being synthesized and broken down (anabolism, catabolism). Amino acids in blood plasma come from digested… Continue reading BCAAs and muscle protein synthesis in humans: myth or reality?

Life Science, M&E 2: Anabolism/Catabolism (HS), M&E 2: Metabolism (MS), M&E 3: Cellular Respiration (HS), M&E 4: Aerobic/Anaerobic Resp. (HS), Matter & Energy in Organisms/Ecosystems, S&F 2: Body Systems (HS), S&F 3: Body Systems (MS), Structure and Function

Long-term Impacts of Antibiotic Exposure on the Human Intestinal Microbiota

Long-term impacts of antibiotic exposure on the human intestinal microbiota SUMMARY: This review looked the long-term effects of taking antibiotics. If one is looking at the microbiota as a whole, the effects seem to be short term (a few months); however, if one looks at the population of specific species of bacteria, the numbers don’t… Continue reading Long-term Impacts of Antibiotic Exposure on the Human Intestinal Microbiota

Chemical Reactions, CR 1: Predicting Reactions (HS), Life Science, M&E 2: Anabolism/Catabolism (HS), M&E 2: Metabolism (MS), M&E 3: Cellular Respiration (HS), Physical Science, S&F 1: DNA to Proteins (HS), Structure and Function

Metabolizing Acetaldehyde

Acetaldehyde production and metabolism by human indigenous and probiotic Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains. (NOT OPEN ACCESS) SUMMARY: In order to turn ethanol into acetaldehyde, the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase requires both a zinc atom and NAD+. This study looks at the levels of NAD+ in Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria after incubating them in ethanol and acetaldehyde, in… Continue reading Metabolizing Acetaldehyde