Inheritance & Variation of Traits, Inheritance 2: Role of DNA (HS), Life Science, Non-NGSS Articles, S&F 1: Cells (MS), S&F 1: DNA to Proteins (HS), S&F 2: Cell Function (MS), S&F 3: Body Systems (MS), S&F 4: Stimuli Response (MS), Structure and Function

mRNA vaccines – a new era in vaccinology

https://www.nature.com/articles/nrd.2017.243 SUMMARY: Traditional ways of making vaccines include using antigens and weakened or dead pathogens. While these methods have worked for us in the past, their application is limited. They don’t work against cancers and tumors and they can be expensive to produce. Using mRNA vaccines is a new and versatile way to create vaccines.… Continue reading mRNA vaccines – a new era in vaccinology

Life Science, S&F 1: Cells (MS), S&F 2: Body Systems (HS), S&F 2: Cell Function (MS), S&F 3: Body Systems (MS), Structure and Function

Immune responses in COVID-19

Immune responses in COVID-19 and potential vaccines: Lessons learned from SARS and MERS epidemic SUMMARY: This article review looks at what is already known about SARS and MERS and uses the data and clinical studies to discuss potential vaccines and treatments for the new coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2. Compared to SARS-CoV and MERS, SARS-CoV-2 has a much… Continue reading Immune responses in COVID-19

Chemical Reactions, CR 1: Determining Chemical Reactions (MS), CR 3: Evidence of Reactions (HS), CR 4: Driving Reactions (HS), HSus 4: Evaluating Solutions (HS), HSus 5: Showing Human Impact (HS), Human Sustainability, Inheritance & Variation of Traits, Inheritance 2: Genes and Growth (MS), Inheritance 2: Role of DNA (HS), Inheritance 3: Mutations (HS), Inheritance 3: Mutations (MS), Life Science, M&E 2: Anabolism/Catabolism (HS), Matter & Energy in Organisms/Ecosystems, Natural Selection & Evolution, NSE 1: Evolution Evidence (HS), NSE 2: Evolution Factors (HS), NSE 3: Trait Selection (HS), Physical Science, S&F 1: Cells (MS), Structure and Function

Using NAC Against Antibiotic Resistance Bacteria

N-acetyl Cysteine Coated Gallium Particles Demonstrate High Potency against Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 SUMMARY: Antibiotic resistant bacterial infections are on the rise, especially in hospitals. One of the culprits is the bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa (POA1). Researchers are quickly running out of antibiotics to use against resistant strains. The problem has reached the point where colistin, a… Continue reading Using NAC Against Antibiotic Resistance Bacteria

Interdependent Relationships in Ecosystems, IR 1: Ecosystem Interactions (MS), IR 3: Ecosystem Stability (HS), IR 5: Survival (HS), Life Science, M&E 2: Anabolism/Catabolism (HS), M&E 2: Metabolism (MS), M&E 3: Cellular Respiration (HS), M&E 3: Food Webs (MS), M&E 4: Aerobic/Anaerobic Resp. (HS), M&E 4: Biogeochemical Cycles (MS), M&E 5: Matter/Energy Cycles (HS), M&E 6: Biogeochemical Cycles (HS), Matter & Energy in Organisms/Ecosystems, S&F 1: Cells (MS), S&F 1: DNA to Proteins (HS), S&F 4: Stimuli Response (MS), Structure and Function

Different Enzymes to Digest Different Plant Substrates

The fungal cultivar of leaf-cutter ants produces specific enzymes in response to different plant substrates SUMMARY: Leaf-cutter ants and a fungus called Leucoagaricus gongylophorus have a symbiotic relationship. The ants harvest plant material for the fungus to “eat” and then the ants feed off of the gongylidia. These swollen parts of the hyphae are no… Continue reading Different Enzymes to Digest Different Plant Substrates

Life Science, M&E 2: Anabolism/Catabolism (HS), M&E 2: Metabolism (MS), M&E 3: Cellular Respiration (HS), M&E 4: Aerobic/Anaerobic Resp. (HS), Matter & Energy in Organisms/Ecosystems, Natural Selection & Evolution, NSE 2: Evolution Factors (HS), NSE 2: Taxonomy (MS), NSE 4: Adaption (HS), S&F 1: Cells (MS), S&F 1: DNA to Proteins (HS), S&F 2: Cell Function (MS), S&F 4: Stimuli Response (MS), Structure and Function

The architecture of cell differentiation in choanoflagellates and sponge choanocytes

The architecture of cell differentiation in choanoflagellates and sponge choanocytes SUMMARY: The closest relative to multicellular animals are single-celled organisms called choanoflagellates. These protists look like collar cells. These are cells that have a microvillar ring (the collar) around a flagellum. An example of these cells in animals are sensory epidermal cells. To get a… Continue reading The architecture of cell differentiation in choanoflagellates and sponge choanocytes

Inheritance & Variation of Traits, Inheritance 1: Mitosis (HS), Inheritance 2: Genes and Growth (MS), Inheritance 2: Role of DNA (HS), Inheritance 4: Asexual/Sexual (MS), Life Science, M&E 1: Photosynthesis (HS), M&E 1: Photosynthesis (MS), Matter & Energy in Organisms/Ecosystems, S&F 1: Cells (MS), S&F 2: Cell Function (MS), Structure and Function

Chloroplast Division

Chloroplast Division SUMMARY: Chloroplast division in plants is still a fairly unknown topic when it comes to specific cellular/molecular mechanisms. This paper describes, step by step, all the proteins and enzymes involved in helping chloroplasts divide (FtsZ, Min system, ARC6, etc.) It also compares the division of chloroplasts to binary fission in various prokaryotes (FtsZ… Continue reading Chloroplast Division