Life Science, Physical Science, S&F 1: Cells (MS), S&F 2: Body Systems (HS), S&F 2: Cell Function (MS), S&F 3: Body Systems (MS), S&P 4: Molecule Traits (HS), Structure & Properties of Matter, Structure and Function

Tardigrades in Space Research – Past and Future

Tardigrades in Space Research - Past and Future SUMMARY: This is a review of the research articles and experiments on tardigrades in space. It's an easy read and best used as an introduction to more articles on the specific experiments conducted by NASA. In the first few sections, the authors explain what tardigrades are, their… Continue reading Tardigrades in Space Research – Past and Future

Earth Science, HE 1: Earth's History (MS), HE 2: Early Earth (HS), History of Earth

Beaming Naphthalene Part 2

Amino Acids produced from the ultraviolet/extreme-ultraviolet irradiation of naphthalene in a H2O+NH3 ice mixture SUMMARY: This experiment starts quite similarly to “Beaming Naphthalene 1”, but after exposure to UV light, researchers scraped off the residue (there was no scraping of the residue in “Beaming Naphthalene 1”), hydrolysis performed (reaction with water) and products identified with… Continue reading Beaming Naphthalene Part 2

Earth Science, Earth's System, ES 1: Materials/Energy Flow (MS), ES 4: Carbon Cycling (HS), ES 5: Life on Earth (HS), HE 1: Earth's History (MS), HE 2: Early Earth (HS), History of Earth

Beaming Naphthalene Part 1

Infrared Study of UV/EUV Irradiation of Naphthalene in H2O+NH3 Ice SUMMARY: This study beamed naphthalene in a mixture of water and ammonia ice with different energy levels of UV light. Results showed that naphthalene breaks down and the pieces react into various small carbon-based compounds. Since conditions for this experiment try to replicate those found… Continue reading Beaming Naphthalene Part 1

Chemical Reactions, Earth Science, Non-NGSS Articles, Physical Science, S&P 1: Atoms & Molecules (MS), S&P 4: Molecule Traits (HS), Space Systems, SS 2: Big Bang Theory (HS), Structure & Properties of Matter

Beaming Benzene and Naphthalene

N- and O-Heterocycles Produced from the Irradiation of Benzene and Naphthalene in H2O/NH3-Containing Ices SUMMARY: While pyrimidines have been found on space rocks (carbonaceous chondrites), researchers wanted to see if they can produce different types of heterocyclic molecules in the lab by beaming benzene and naphthalene (both are cyclic organic compounds that can open, substitute… Continue reading Beaming Benzene and Naphthalene

Chemical Reactions, CR 2: Energy in Reactions (HS), CR 3: Evidence of Reactions (HS), CR 4: Driving Reactions (HS), Non-NGSS Articles, Physical Science, S&P 1: Atoms & Molecules (MS), S&P 4: Molecule Traits (HS), Structure & Properties of Matter

Beaming Pyrimidines Part 3

Irradiation of Pyrimidine in Pure H2O Ice with High-Energy Ultraviolet Photons SUMMARY: In Part 3 of pyrimidine beaming, researchers looked at different energy levels of photons and their effect on pyrimidines. They beamed a water and pyrimidine ice mixture with photons of three different wavelengths. Uracil and the molecule that is the precursor to uracil… Continue reading Beaming Pyrimidines Part 3

Chemical Reactions, CR 4: Driving Reactions (HS), Physical Science, S&P 1: Atoms & Molecules (MS), S&P 1: Periodic Table Patterns (HS), S&P 3: Heat & Reactions (MS), S&P 4: Molecule Traits (HS), Structure & Properties of Matter, W 1: Graphing Waves (MS), W 1: Wave Relationships (HS), W 2: Digital Info (HS), W 2: Wave Behavior (MS), W 3: Digital vs Analog (MS), W 5: Devices (HS), Waves & Electromagnetic Radiation

Beaming Pyrimidines Part 1

Nucleobases and Prebiotic Molecules in Organic Residues Produced from the Ultraviolet Photo-Irradiation of Pyrimidine in NH3 and H2O + NH3 Ices (NOT OPEN ACCESS) SUMMARY: If you beam water and pyrimidines at low temperature and pressure in a sealed chamber, you’ll get cool pyrimidine-based things like uracil, cytosine, isomers of uracil and cytosine. You’ll also… Continue reading Beaming Pyrimidines Part 1