Chemical Reactions, CR 1: Determining Chemical Reactions (MS), CR 1: Predicting Reactions (HS), CR 2: Energy in Reactions (HS), CR 2: Modeling Conservation of Mass (MS), CR 3: Evidence of Reactions (HS), CR 3: Testing Endo/Exothermic Reactions (MS), CR 4: Driving Reactions (HS), Non-NGSS Articles, Physical Science, S&P 1: Atoms & Molecules (MS), S&P 1: Periodic Table Patterns (HS), S&P 3: Heat & Reactions (MS), S&P 4: Molecule Traits (HS), Structure & Properties of Matter, W 1: Graphing Waves (MS), W 1: Wave Relationships (HS), W 2: Wave Behavior (MS), Waves & Electromagnetic Radiation

Beaming Pyrimidines Part 2

Thymine and Other Prebiotic Molecules Produced from the Ultraviolet Photo-Irradiation of Pyrimidine in Simple Astrophysical Ice Analogs(NOT OPEN ACCESS) SUMMARY: In the second edition of beaming pyrimidines, instead of using ammonia, scientists beamed pyrimidines with methanol, water and methanol, methane, and water and methane. As with “Beaming Pyrimidines Part 1”, the gases were cooled way… Continue reading Beaming Pyrimidines Part 2

Chemical Reactions, CR 4: Driving Reactions (HS), Physical Science, S&P 1: Atoms & Molecules (MS), S&P 1: Periodic Table Patterns (HS), S&P 3: Heat & Reactions (MS), S&P 4: Molecule Traits (HS), Structure & Properties of Matter, W 1: Graphing Waves (MS), W 1: Wave Relationships (HS), W 2: Digital Info (HS), W 2: Wave Behavior (MS), W 3: Digital vs Analog (MS), W 5: Devices (HS), Waves & Electromagnetic Radiation

Beaming Pyrimidines Part 1

Nucleobases and Prebiotic Molecules in Organic Residues Produced from the Ultraviolet Photo-Irradiation of Pyrimidine in NH3 and H2O + NH3 Ices (NOT OPEN ACCESS) SUMMARY: If you beam water and pyrimidines at low temperature and pressure in a sealed chamber, you’ll produce pyrimidine-based molecules such as uracil, cytosine, isomers of uracil and cytosine. You’ll also… Continue reading Beaming Pyrimidines Part 1

Chemical Reactions, CR 2: Energy in Reactions (HS), CR 4: Driving Reactions (HS), Earth Science, F&I 4: Gravity & Mass (MS), Forces & Interactions, Physical Science, S&P 4: Molecule Traits (HS), Space Systems, SS 3: Solar Sys Scale (MS), Structure & Properties of Matter, W 1: Graphing Waves (MS), W 2: Wave Behavior (MS), W 5: Devices (HS), Waves & Electromagnetic Radiation

Why Is Pluto Red Part 1

Ice Chemistry on Outer Solar System Bodies: Carboxylic Acids, Nitriles, and Urea Detected in Refractory Residues Produced from the UV Photolysis of N2:CH4:CO-Containing Ices SUMMARY: Using a ratio of 100:1:1 of nitrogen gas, methane, and carbon monoxide at very low temperatures and pressure, scientists found that beaming the gas mixture with UV photons can produce… Continue reading Why Is Pluto Red Part 1

Chemical Reactions, CR 2: Energy in Reactions (HS), CR 2: Modeling Conservation of Mass (MS), CR 3: Evidence of Reactions (HS), CR 3: Testing Endo/Exothermic Reactions (MS), CR 4: Driving Reactions (HS), CR 5: Conservation of Mass (HS), Physical Science, S&P 4: Molecule Traits (HS), Structure & Properties of Matter, W 1: Graphing Waves (MS), W 1: Wave Relationships (HS), W 2: Digital Info (HS), W 2: Wave Behavior (MS), W 3: Digital vs Analog (MS), W 3: Modeling Electromagnetic Radiation (HS), W 5: Devices (HS), Waves & Electromagnetic Radiation

Beaming Simulated Space Ice

Enantiomeric separation of complex organic molecules produced from irradiation of interstellar/circumstellar ice analogs(NOT OPEN ACCESS) SUMMARY: To simulate conditions in space and in asteroids and meteorites, scientists put simple gases (water, carbon dioxide, ammonia, and methanol) into a low temperature and low pressure chamber. Then, using UV light, they irradiated these gases (which at the… Continue reading Beaming Simulated Space Ice