Earth Science, HE 1: Earth's History (MS), HE 2: Early Earth (HS), History of Earth

Beaming Naphthalene Part 2

Amino Acids produced from the ultraviolet/extreme-ultraviolet irradiation of naphthalene in a H2O+NH3 ice mixture SUMMARY: This experiment starts quite similarly to “Beaming Naphthalene 1”, but after exposure to UV light, researchers scraped off the residue (there was no scraping of the residue in “Beaming Naphthalene 1”), hydrolysis performed (reaction with water) and products identified with… Continue reading Beaming Naphthalene Part 2

Earth Science, Earth's System, ES 1: Materials/Energy Flow (MS), ES 4: Carbon Cycling (HS), ES 5: Life on Earth (HS), HE 1: Earth's History (MS), HE 2: Early Earth (HS), History of Earth

Beaming Naphthalene Part 1

Infrared Study of UV/EUV Irradiation of Naphthalene in H2O+NH3 Ice SUMMARY: This study beamed naphthalene in a mixture of water and ammonia ice with different energy levels of UV light. Results showed that naphthalene breaks down and the pieces react into various small carbon-based compounds. Since conditions of this experiment try to replicate those found… Continue reading Beaming Naphthalene Part 1

Chemical Reactions, Earth Science, Non-NGSS Articles, Physical Science, S&P 1: Atoms & Molecules (MS), S&P 4: Molecule Traits (HS), Space Systems, SS 2: Big Bang Theory (HS), Structure & Properties of Matter

Beaming Benzene and Naphthalene

N- and O-Heterocycles Produced from the Irradiation of Benzene and Naphthalene in H2O/NH3-Containing Ices SUMMARY: While pyrimidines have been found on space rocks (carbonaceous chondrites), researchers wanted to see if they can produce different types of heterocyclic molecules in the lab by beaming benzene and naphthalene (both are cyclic organic compounds that can open, substitute… Continue reading Beaming Benzene and Naphthalene

Chemical Reactions, CR 3: Evidence of Reactions (HS), CR 4: Driving Reactions (HS), Earth Science, HE 1: Earth's History (MS), HE 2: Early Earth (HS), History of Earth, Non-NGSS Articles, Physical Science, S&P 4: Molecule Traits (HS), Structure & Properties of Matter

Beaming Purines

The Formation of Nucleobases from the Ultraviolet Photoirradiation of Purine in Simple Astrophysical Ice Analogues SUMMARY: Purines were combined with water and ammonia and beamed with UV photons similar to the pyrimidines in “Beaming Pyrimidines Part 1”. Researchers found many purine compounds in the products including adenine and guanine (at different concentration levels). The discussion… Continue reading Beaming Purines

Chemical Reactions, CR 4: Driving Reactions (HS), HE 1: Earth's History (MS), HE 2: Early Earth (HS), History of Earth, Physical Science, S&P 4: Molecule Traits (HS), Structure & Properties of Matter

Beaming Pyrimidines Part 5

Mechanisms for the formation of thymine under astrophysical conditions and implications for the origin of life SUMMARY: This article talks about different ways thymine can form under the conditions given in Part 4 of the Beaming Pyrimidines series. By adding hydroxyl and methyl groups to pyrimidine and beaming the mixture, thymine can form. The role… Continue reading Beaming Pyrimidines Part 5