Inheritance & Variation of Traits, Inheritance 2: Genes and Growth (MS), Inheritance 2: Role of DNA (HS), Inheritance 5: DNA Technology (MS), Life Science, Natural Selection & Evolution, NSE 1: Evolution Evidence (HS), NSE 2: Evolution Factors (HS), NSE 2: Taxonomy (MS), NSE 3: Embryology (MS), S&F 1: Cells (MS), S&F 1: DNA to Proteins (HS), Structure and Function

Cas4-like Protein in Giant Viruses

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2018.04.001 SUMMARY: Mimiviruses are giant viruses that co-evolved with eukaryotic hosts and virophages. Virophages are tiny viruses that hijack the viral factories giant viruses set up inside the host. Just as the eukaryotic host and virophages have evolved a sort of symbiotic relationship to defend against giant virus attacks, giant viruses have also evolved a… Continue reading Cas4-like Protein in Giant Viruses

Inheritance & Variation of Traits, Inheritance 1: Behavior and Reproduction (MS), Inheritance 2: Genes and Growth (MS), Inheritance 2: Role of DNA (HS), Inheritance 4: Population Genetics (HS), Inheritance 5: DNA Technology (MS), Interdependent Relationships in Ecosystems, IR 1: Ecosystem Interactions (MS), IR 3: Ecosystem Stability (HS), Life Science, Natural Selection & Evolution, NSE 1: Evolution Evidence (HS), NSE 2: Evolution Factors (HS), NSE 4: Adaption (HS), NSE 4: Fitness (MS), NSE 5: Natural Selection (MS), NSE 5: Population Flux (HS), S&F 1: Cells (MS), S&F 1: DNA to Proteins (HS), S&F 2: Cell Function (MS), Structure and Function

Amoebae, Giant Viruses, and Virophages

https://doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2017.00527 SUMMARY: In 2003, scientists discovered that giant viruses infected amoebas. These giant viruses are so big that they were mistaken for bacteria for the longest time. It wasn’t until scientists realized they contained no ribosomal DNA that these organisms were reclassified as viruses. From there, even more giant viruses were discovered. Some of the… Continue reading Amoebae, Giant Viruses, and Virophages

Life Science, M&E 2: Anabolism/Catabolism (HS), M&E 2: Metabolism (MS), M&E 3: Cellular Respiration (HS), M&E 4: Aerobic/Anaerobic Resp. (HS), Matter & Energy in Organisms/Ecosystems, Natural Selection & Evolution, NSE 2: Evolution Factors (HS), NSE 2: Taxonomy (MS), NSE 4: Adaption (HS), S&F 1: Cells (MS), S&F 1: DNA to Proteins (HS), S&F 2: Cell Function (MS), S&F 4: Stimuli Response (MS), Structure and Function

The architecture of cell differentiation in choanoflagellates and sponge choanocytes

The architecture of cell differentiation in choanoflagellates and sponge choanocytes SUMMARY: The closest relative to multicellular animals are single-celled organisms called choanoflagellates. These protists look like collar cells. These are cells that have a microvillar ring (the collar) around a flagellum. An example of these cells in animals are sensory epidermal cells. To get a… Continue reading The architecture of cell differentiation in choanoflagellates and sponge choanocytes

Chemical Reactions, CR 4: Driving Reactions (HS), Earth Science, Earth's System, ES 1: Materials/Energy Flow (MS), ES 4: Carbon Cycling (HS), Life Science, M&E 4: Biogeochemical Cycles (MS), M&E 5: Matter/Energy Cycles (HS), M&E 6: Biogeochemical Cycles (HS), Matter & Energy in Organisms/Ecosystems, Physical Science, S&F 1: Cells (MS), S&F 2: Cell Function (MS), Structure and Function

Field and lab conditions alter microbial enzyme and biomass dynamics

Field and lab conditions alter microbial enzyme and biomass dynamics driving decomposition of the same leaf litter SUMMARY: This study looked at the rate of decay between litter in lab conditions and natural conditions. They used fallen leaves from dogwood trees, oak trees, maple trees, and maple-oak tree mix. Results showed quite a difference in… Continue reading Field and lab conditions alter microbial enzyme and biomass dynamics

Life Science, M&E 2: Anabolism/Catabolism (HS), M&E 2: Metabolism (MS), M&E 3: Cellular Respiration (HS), M&E 4: Aerobic/Anaerobic Resp. (HS), Matter & Energy in Organisms/Ecosystems

BCAAs and muscle protein synthesis in humans: myth or reality?

Branched-chain amino acids and muscle protein synthesis in humans: myth or reality? SUMMARY: This study is an article review on whether or not consuming BCAAs (branched chain amino acids) alone was enough to promote muscle growth. Muscle protein is constantly being synthesized and broken down (anabolism, catabolism). Amino acids in blood plasma come from digested… Continue reading BCAAs and muscle protein synthesis in humans: myth or reality?

Inheritance & Variation of Traits, Inheritance 2: Genes and Growth (MS), Life Science, S&F 2: Body Systems (HS), S&F 3: Body Systems (MS), Structure and Function

Ingestion of Lactobacillus strain regulates emotional behavior and central GABA receptor expression

Ingestion of Lactobacillus strain regulates emotional behavior and central GABA receptor expression in a mouse via the vagus nerve SUMMARY: This study looked at the effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus on GABA receptors and the role of the vagus nerve in the gut-brain connection. Results showed that L. rhamnosus decreased cortisone levels in stressed out mice… Continue reading Ingestion of Lactobacillus strain regulates emotional behavior and central GABA receptor expression