Life Science, M&E 2: Anabolism/Catabolism (HS), M&E 2: Metabolism (MS), M&E 3: Cellular Respiration (HS), M&E 4: Aerobic/Anaerobic Resp. (HS), Matter & Energy in Organisms/Ecosystems, Natural Selection & Evolution, NSE 2: Evolution Factors (HS), NSE 2: Taxonomy (MS), NSE 4: Adaption (HS), S&F 1: Cells (MS), S&F 1: DNA to Proteins (HS), S&F 2: Cell Function (MS), S&F 4: Stimuli Response (MS), Structure and Function

The architecture of cell differentiation in choanoflagellates and sponge choanocytes

The architecture of cell differentiation in choanoflagellates and sponge choanocytes SUMMARY: The closest relative to multicellular animals are single-celled organisms called choanoflagellates. These protists look like collar cells. These are cells that have a microvillar ring (the collar) around a flagellum. An example of these cells in animals are sensory epidermal cells. To get a… Continue reading The architecture of cell differentiation in choanoflagellates and sponge choanocytes

Chemical Reactions, CR 4: Driving Reactions (HS), Earth Science, Earth's System, ES 1: Materials/Energy Flow (MS), ES 4: Carbon Cycling (HS), Life Science, M&E 4: Biogeochemical Cycles (MS), M&E 5: Matter/Energy Cycles (HS), M&E 6: Biogeochemical Cycles (HS), Matter & Energy in Organisms/Ecosystems, Physical Science, S&F 1: Cells (MS), S&F 2: Cell Function (MS), Structure and Function

Field and lab conditions alter microbial enzyme and biomass dynamics

Field and lab conditions alter microbial enzyme and biomass dynamics driving decomposition of the same leaf litter SUMMARY: This study looked at the rate of decay between litter in lab conditions and natural conditions. They used fallen leaves from dogwood trees, oak trees, maple trees, and maple-oak tree mix. Results showed quite a difference in… Continue reading Field and lab conditions alter microbial enzyme and biomass dynamics

Life Science, M&E 2: Anabolism/Catabolism (HS), M&E 2: Metabolism (MS), M&E 3: Cellular Respiration (HS), M&E 4: Aerobic/Anaerobic Resp. (HS), Matter & Energy in Organisms/Ecosystems

BCAAs and muscle protein synthesis in humans: myth or reality?

Branched-chain amino acids and muscle protein synthesis in humans: myth or reality? SUMMARY: This study is an article review on whether or not consuming BCAAs (branched chain amino acids) alone was enough to promote muscle growth. Muscle protein is constantly being synthesized and broken down (anabolism, catabolism). Amino acids in blood plasma come from digested… Continue reading BCAAs and muscle protein synthesis in humans: myth or reality?

Inheritance & Variation of Traits, Inheritance 2: Genes and Growth (MS), Life Science, S&F 2: Body Systems (HS), S&F 3: Body Systems (MS), Structure and Function

Ingestion of Lactobacillus strain regulates emotional behavior and central GABA receptor expression

Ingestion of Lactobacillus strain regulates emotional behavior and central GABA receptor expression in a mouse via the vagus nerve SUMMARY: This study looked at the effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus on GABA receptors and the role of the vagus nerve in the gut-brain connection. Results showed that L. rhamnosus decreased cortisone levels in stressed out mice… Continue reading Ingestion of Lactobacillus strain regulates emotional behavior and central GABA receptor expression

Life Science, S&F 1: DNA to Proteins (HS), S&F 2: Cell Function (MS), Structure and Function

Structure and Function of MCR-4

Action and mechanism of the colistin resistance enzyme MCR-4 SUMMARY: Colistin is an antibiotic that is considered to be a last resort against antibiotic resistant bacteria. Unfortunately, an enzyme called MCR-4 has evolved which makes bacteria resistant to colistin. Researchers want to understand the structure and function of MCR-4 in order to combat it. There… Continue reading Structure and Function of MCR-4

Inheritance & Variation of Traits, Inheritance 2: Genes and Growth (MS), Inheritance 2: Role of DNA (HS), Inheritance 3: Mutations (HS), Inheritance 3: Mutations (MS), Inheritance 4: Population Genetics (HS), Life Science, Natural Selection & Evolution, NSE 2: Evolution Factors (HS), NSE 3: Trait Selection (HS), NSE 4: Adaption (HS), NSE 4: Fitness (MS), NSE 5: Natural Selection (MS), NSE 5: Population Flux (HS), S&F 1: Cells (MS), S&F 1: DNA to Proteins (HS), S&F 2: Cell Function (MS), Structure and Function

How Bacteria Genes Change with Dryness

Environmental filtering of bacterial functional diversity along an aridity gradient SUMMARY: Genes of soil bacteria sampled in the Tibetan Plateau showed that as the environment got drier, the less diverse the genes were. Researchers wanted to compare bacterial gene diversity with the already-known diversity of genes in large animals in various environments. There were less… Continue reading How Bacteria Genes Change with Dryness