E 1: Energy, Mass, & Speed (MS), E 2: Energy & Motion (HS), Earth Science, Energy, F&I 1: Newton's 2nd Law (HS), F&I 1: Newton's 3rd Law (MS), F&I 2: Newton's 1st Law (MS), F&I 2: Newton's 3rd Law (HS), F&I 4: Gravity & Mass (MS), F&I 5: Force Fields (MS), Forces & Interactions, Life Science, Physical Science, S&F 2: Body Systems (HS), S&F 3: Body Systems (MS), Space Systems, SS 2: Gravity (MS), Structure and Function

Microgravity and the Respiratory System

Microgravity and the Respiratory System SUMMARY: What are the effects of gravity on lung function? This study first breaks down how gravity works and its effects on living organisms. The second section explains lung function with and without gravity. Finally, the last sections look at the difference in lung function during and after short and… Continue reading Microgravity and the Respiratory System

Chemical Reactions, CR 2: Energy in Reactions (HS), CR 4: Driving Reactions (HS), Physical Science, S&P 1: Atoms & Molecules (MS), S&P 3: Heat & Reactions (MS), S&P 4: Molecule Traits (HS), Structure & Properties of Matter, W 1: Graphing Waves (MS), W 1: Wave Relationships (HS), W 2: Wave Behavior (MS), Waves & Electromagnetic Radiation

Beaming Pyrimidines Part 4

The Photochemistry of Pyrimidine in Realistic Astrophysical Ices and the Production of Nucleobases SUMMARY: To mimic the conditions on comets or space clouds, the gas mixture beamed in this experiment was a mixture of: water, methanol, ammonia, methane, and pyrazine. Pyrazine is an isomer of pyrimidine (both have the chemical formula C4H4N2). This gas mixture… Continue reading Beaming Pyrimidines Part 4

Chemical Reactions, CR 2: Energy in Reactions (HS), CR 3: Evidence of Reactions (HS), CR 4: Driving Reactions (HS), Non-NGSS Articles, Physical Science, S&P 1: Atoms & Molecules (MS), S&P 4: Molecule Traits (HS), Structure & Properties of Matter

Beaming Pyrimidines Part 3

Irradiation of Pyrimidine in Pure H2O Ice with High-Energy Ultraviolet Photons SUMMARY: In Part 3 of pyrimidine beaming, researchers looked at different energy levels of photons and their effect on pyrimidines. They beamed a water and pyrimidine ice mixture with photons of three different wavelengths. Uracil and the molecule that is the precursor to uracil… Continue reading Beaming Pyrimidines Part 3

Chemical Reactions, CR 1: Determining Chemical Reactions (MS), CR 1: Predicting Reactions (HS), CR 2: Energy in Reactions (HS), CR 2: Modeling Conservation of Mass (MS), CR 3: Evidence of Reactions (HS), CR 3: Testing Endo/Exothermic Reactions (MS), CR 4: Driving Reactions (HS), Non-NGSS Articles, Physical Science, S&P 1: Atoms & Molecules (MS), S&P 1: Periodic Table Patterns (HS), S&P 3: Heat & Reactions (MS), S&P 4: Molecule Traits (HS), Structure & Properties of Matter, W 1: Graphing Waves (MS), W 1: Wave Relationships (HS), W 2: Wave Behavior (MS), Waves & Electromagnetic Radiation

Beaming Pyrimidines Part 2

Thymine and Other Prebiotic Molecules Produced from the Ultraviolet Photo-Irradiation of Pyrimidine in Simple Astrophysical Ice Analogs(NOT OPEN ACCESS) SUMMARY: In the second edition of beaming pyrimidines, instead of using ammonia, scientists beamed pyrimidines with methanol, water and methanol, methane, and water and methane. As with “Beaming Pyrimidines Part 1”, the gases were cooled way… Continue reading Beaming Pyrimidines Part 2

Chemical Reactions, CR 4: Driving Reactions (HS), Physical Science, S&P 1: Atoms & Molecules (MS), S&P 1: Periodic Table Patterns (HS), S&P 3: Heat & Reactions (MS), S&P 4: Molecule Traits (HS), Structure & Properties of Matter, W 1: Graphing Waves (MS), W 1: Wave Relationships (HS), W 2: Digital Info (HS), W 2: Wave Behavior (MS), W 3: Digital vs Analog (MS), W 5: Devices (HS), Waves & Electromagnetic Radiation

Beaming Pyrimidines Part 1

Nucleobases and Prebiotic Molecules in Organic Residues Produced from the Ultraviolet Photo-Irradiation of Pyrimidine in NH3 and H2O + NH3 Ices (NOT OPEN ACCESS) SUMMARY: If you beam water and pyrimidines at low temperature and pressure in a sealed chamber, you’ll produce pyrimidine-based molecules such as uracil, cytosine, isomers of uracil and cytosine. You’ll also… Continue reading Beaming Pyrimidines Part 1