Inheritance & Variation of Traits, Inheritance 1: Behavior and Reproduction (MS), Inheritance 2: Genes and Growth (MS), Inheritance 2: Role of DNA (HS), Inheritance 4: Population Genetics (HS), Inheritance 5: DNA Technology (MS), Interdependent Relationships in Ecosystems, IR 1: Ecosystem Interactions (MS), IR 3: Ecosystem Stability (HS), Life Science, Natural Selection & Evolution, NSE 1: Evolution Evidence (HS), NSE 2: Evolution Factors (HS), NSE 4: Adaption (HS), NSE 4: Fitness (MS), NSE 5: Natural Selection (MS), NSE 5: Population Flux (HS), S&F 1: Cells (MS), S&F 1: DNA to Proteins (HS), S&F 2: Cell Function (MS), Structure and Function

Amoebae, Giant Viruses, and Virophages

https://doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2017.00527 SUMMARY: In 2003, scientists discovered that giant viruses infected amoebas. These giant viruses are so big that they were mistaken for bacteria for the longest time. It wasn’t until scientists realized they contained no ribosomal DNA that these organisms were reclassified as viruses. From there, even more giant viruses were discovered. Some of the… Continue reading Amoebae, Giant Viruses, and Virophages

Inheritance & Variation of Traits, Inheritance 2: Role of DNA (HS), Life Science, Non-NGSS Articles, S&F 1: Cells (MS), S&F 1: DNA to Proteins (HS), S&F 2: Cell Function (MS), S&F 3: Body Systems (MS), S&F 4: Stimuli Response (MS), Structure and Function

mRNA vaccines – a new era in vaccinology

https://www.nature.com/articles/nrd.2017.243 SUMMARY: Traditional ways of making vaccines include using antigens and weakened or dead pathogens. While these methods have worked for us in the past, their application is limited. They don’t work against cancers and tumors and they can be expensive to produce. Using mRNA vaccines is a new and versatile way to create vaccines.… Continue reading mRNA vaccines – a new era in vaccinology

Life Science, S&F 1: Cells (MS), S&F 2: Body Systems (HS), S&F 2: Cell Function (MS), S&F 3: Body Systems (MS), Structure and Function

Immune responses in COVID-19

Immune responses in COVID-19 and potential vaccines: Lessons learned from SARS and MERS epidemic SUMMARY: This article review looks at what is already known about SARS and MERS and uses the data and clinical studies to discuss potential vaccines and treatments for the new coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2. Compared to SARS-CoV and MERS, SARS-CoV-2 has a much… Continue reading Immune responses in COVID-19

Non-NGSS Articles, S&P 1: Atoms & Molecules (MS), S&P 1: Periodic Table Patterns (HS), S&P 2: Investigating Electrical Force (HS), S&P 2: Synthetic Materials (MS), S&P 4: Molecule Traits (HS), Structure & Properties of Matter

The Antibiotic Neomycin Enhances Coxsackievirus Plaque Formation

The Antibiotic Neomycin Enhances Coxsackievirus Plaque Formation SUMMARY: This article talks about how antibiotics (specifically neomycin) and other positively charged substances can help viruses spread (the virus studied in this case has a negatively charged exterior). Most of the experiments looked at the reasons why the virus was able to form more plaques with the… Continue reading The Antibiotic Neomycin Enhances Coxsackievirus Plaque Formation

Inheritance & Variation of Traits, Inheritance 5: DNA Technology (MS), Life Science

Phage Therapy on Infected Graft

Phage treatment of an aortic graft infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa SUMMARY: The first part of this article talks about using phage and antibiotics (separately and together) in vitro to reduce bacteria biofilm. Researchers found that phage alone was enough to reduce biofilm to almost zero; however, there is the concern (noted in other papers) that… Continue reading Phage Therapy on Infected Graft

Life Science, Natural Selection & Evolution, NSE 5: Natural Selection (MS), S&F 1: DNA to Proteins (HS), Structure and Function

Understanding the Spanish Flu Virus

Characterization of the Reconstructed 1918 Spanish Influenza Pandemic Virus (NOT OPEN ACCESS) SUMMARY: Influenza viruses require a proteolytic enzyme (an enzyme that can cut or cleave proteins), like trypsin, in order to activate a surface protein that allows them to attach/infect our cells. Since viruses can only replicate inside cells, having this proteolytic enzyme is… Continue reading Understanding the Spanish Flu Virus